Though humanism today tends to be associated with secular movements, they often tend to harbor a “spiritual” component in the sense that they sympathize with the religious impulse and try to harness it. To this end, they often embrace the mythological and symbolic elements of traditional religion, even if they reject any notion that they are factually real.
Like the Existentialists, Hippieists believe that freedom of lifestyle and personal expression are crucial for humans to reach their full potential and to be truly alive. However, they’re a lot more optimistic than the Existentialists, incorporating a Hedonistic ethos in which the pursuit of pleasure plays a large part.
Hedonism appears in many of the world’s philosophies and religions. Given that human beings are fundamentally driven to attaining pleasure, this is no surprise. The question, of course, is how to achieve pleasure (or its various aspects, such as contentment), and how to do so ethically.
The “Toe” in Toeism stands for the acronym “Theory of Everything.” It’s the idea that all religions are essentially “Theories of Everything.” Toeism is a fanciful religion for people who don’t really have any interest in religion at all.
Existentialism is a worldview that exalts human freedom and authenticity above all else. Existentialists believe that most people merely follow the expectations of society and so are never truly “alive.” To live existentially (and so, fully), one must drop all pretense and be as true to their own views and needs as possible.
Dudeism is essentially a modernized version of Taoism which uses the film The Big Lebowski as its primarly liturgical vehicle. You can visit Dudeism (The Church of the Latter-Day Dude) at www.dudeism.com
Epicurus was one of the most popular and influential ethical philosophers in Ancient Greece. He taught that pleasure was the greatest goal in life, but that to attain it one had to simplify their desires and expectations. By developing modesty and broadening one’s understanding of the world, people could find serenity and happiness. (The modern term “epicurean” misrepresents the original philosophy.)
Because of its association with the modern word “stoic,” some people assume Stoicism is a very serious way of looking at things, that a Stoicist is someone who is very dour and serious all the time. On the contrary, Stoicists have a great affection for life and all that it has to offer, they just doesn’t get attached to expectations.